Floods Floods are high stream flows, which overlap natural or artificial banks of a river or a stream and are markedly higher than the usual as well as inundation of low land. Sometimes copious monsoon rains combine with massive flows from the rivers, then the floods indeed become calamitous. Through geophysical studies, it has been … Read more


Cyclones: Types and Mechanism Cyclone is a system of low atmospheric pressure in which the barometric gradient is steep. Cyclones represent circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This means that the inward spiralling winds in a cyclone rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of … Read more

Problem of Drought and scarcity, DPAP (Draught Prone Area Programme)

Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather system in semi-arid and arid regions … Read more

Drip and sprinkler irrigation

Drip irrigation Drip irrigation is the most efficient water and nutrient delivery system for growing crops. It delivers water and nutrients directly to the plant’s roots zone, in the right amounts, at the right time, so each plant gets exactly what it needs, when it needs it, to grow optimally. Thanks to drip irrigation, farmers … Read more

Water quality standards

The Central Water Commission has published a document to present the tolerance limits for inland surface waters for the various classes of water use. As per ISI-IS: 2296-1982, the tolerance limits of parameters are specified as per classified use of water depending on various uses of water. The following classifications have been adopted in India … Read more

Groundwater management- technical and social aspects, Methods of artificial groundwater recharge. Concept of watershed and watershed management.

Ground Water Management Groundwater management to protect the aquifers from overexploitation, an effective groundwater management policy oriented towards promotion of efficiency, equity and sustainability is required. Agricultural holdings in India are highly fragmented and the rural population density is large. The exploitation of groundwater resources should be regulated so as not to exceed the recharging … Read more

Agroclimatic zones of Maharashtra and Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra

Agroclimatic zones of Maharashtra and Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra Vidarbha zone Rainfalls in the zone area are from June to November. Rainfalls average 177.2 mm in June, 394.4 mm in July, 277.6 mm in August, 200.5 mm in September, 49.6 mm in October and 13.3 mm in November.  The mean annual … Read more

Climatic elements as factors of crop growth

Climatic elements as factors of crop growth The climatic factors are abiotic or non-living components of the environmental factors (outside of genetic factors) that affect plant growth and development. They are elements of climate. There are other abiotic environmental factors, that is, topography and soil, which are treated in a separate page.   Under favorable conditions, … Read more

Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production

Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production Physical Factors Climatic factors Climatic factors includes temperature, growing season, altitude, rainfall and wind. Most plants cannot grow if the temperature falls below 6°C or the soil is frozen for five consecutive months. As a consequence many areas are unsuitable for crop cultivation. Altitude … Read more

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