INDIAN CONSTITUTION AND INDIAN POLITICS
(WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MAHARASHTRA) AND LAW:
Nature of Paper : Objective Type. Duration : 2 Hours
(1) The Nature and standard of questions in the paper will be such that a well educated person will be able to answer without any specialised study and its intention is to test candidate’s general awareness of a variety of subjects.
(2) It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
1. The Constitution of India: Making of the Constitution, Salient Features of the Constitution. Philosophy of the Preamble – (Secular democratic and socialist), Fundamental Rights and Duties – Directive Principles of State Policy, Free and Compulsory primary education, Uniform Civil Code, and Fundamental Duties. Centre – State relations and Formation of New States. Independent Judiciary. Amendment Procedure and Major Amendments to the Constitution: Landmark Judgments used for interpreting the Constitution. Structure and Functions of major Commissions and Boards: Election Commission, Union and State Public Service Commissions, National Women’s Commission, Human Rights Commission, National Minorities S.C./S.T. Commission – River Water Dispute Settlements Board etc.
2. The Political System (Structure, Powers and Functions of Governments): Nature of Indian Federation – Union- Legislatures, Executive & Judiciary & State- Legislatures, Executive & Judiciary. Union-State Relationship- Administrative, Executive and Financial Relationships. Distribution of Legislative powers, Subjects.
(1) The Central Government – The Union Executive: President- Vice-President – Prime Minister and Council of Ministers – Attorney General of India – Comptroller and Auditor General of India
(2) The Union Legislature – Parliament, Speaker and Dy. Speaker – Parliamentary Committees – Parliament’s Control over Executive.
(3) Judiciary: Organisation of Judiciary – Integrated Judiciary – Functions – Role and Power of the Supreme Court and High Court – Subordinate Courts – Lokpal, Lokayukt and Lok Nyayalaya – Judiciary as a watch-dog protecting the Constitutional Order- Judicial Activism, Public Interest Litigation.
3. State Government and Administration (With Special Reference to Maharashtra) – Formation and Reorganisation of Maharashtra State, Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Chief Secretary, State Secretariat, Directorates, Legislative Assembly, Legislative Council, – Powers, Functions and Role – Legislative Committees. Sherrif of Mumbai.
4. District Administration – Evolution of District Administration, Changing role of the District Collector: Law and Order, Relationship with functional Departments. District Administration and the Panchayati Raj Institutions. Role and Functions of the Sub-Divisional Officer.
5. Rural and Urban Local Government: Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendment to the Constitution. Empowerment of local government and their role in development.
(1) Rural Local Government, Composition, Powers and Functions of Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti and Gram Panchayat. Peculiarities of Panchayat Raj Institutions of Mahrashtra, Status Report of Panchayat Raj Institutions and its Performance Appraisal. Main features of 73rd Constitutional Amendments. Problems of implementation. Major rural development programmes and their management.
(2) Urban Local Government, Composition and Functions of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils and Cantonment Boards. Structure, Officials, Resources, Powers- Functions and Controls. Main features of 74th Constitutional Amendments: Problems of implementation. Major urban development programmes and their management.
6. Educational System : Directive Principles of State Policy and Education; Educational Problems of Disadvantaged Sections- Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Muslims and Women; Privatization of education – issues of access to education, merit, quality, and social justice; General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and emerging issues, Challenges in Higher Education today. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.
7. Parties and Pressure Groups: Nature of Party system – Role of National Parties – Ideology, organisation and electoral performance – Political Parties and their Social Bases. Regionalism- Rise of Regional Parties; Ideology, Organisation and electoral performance – Major Pressure Groups and Interest Groups in Maharashtra – their Role and impact on Policy making. Programmes of Social Welfare in Maharashtra : Women and Children; Labour; and Youth. Non-Government Organizations and their Role in Social Welfare.
8. The Media: Print and Electronic Media – its impact on policy making, shaping of the public opinion and educating the people. Press Council of India. Code of conduct for Mass media in a secular democracy like India. The portrayal of women in the main stream mass media: Facts and Norms. Freedom of speech and expression, and limitation thereof.
9. The Electoral Process: Main features of Electoral process – single member territorial Constituencies. Reserved constituencies for weaker sections – Adult Franchise – Role of Election Commission – General Elections – Major trends – Patterns of Voting behaviour – and Factors influencing the voting behaviour – Problems and difficulties in conducting Free and Fair Elections – Electoral Reforms. EVMs.
10. Administrative Law: Rule of law. Administrative Discretion and its control and Judicial Review. Administrative Tribunals, their establishment and functioning. Principles of Natural Justice.
11. Central and State Government Privileges: Section 123 of the Indian Evidence Act, Official Secrets Act, RTI and its impact on Official Secrets Act.
12. Some Pertinent Laws:
(1) Environmental Protection Act, 1986: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(2) The Consumer Protection Act, 1986: Definitions – Consumer Disputes – Redressal Machinery.
(3) Right to Information Act, 2005: Rights of Applicants, duty of Public Authority, exceptions to the information.
(4) Information Technology Act – 2000 (Cyber Law): Definitions – Authorities – offences.
(5) The Prevention of Corruption Act: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(6) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(7) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules 1995: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(8) Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
13. Social Welfare and Social Legislation: Social Legislation as an instrument of Social Change; Human Rights. Protection to Women under: The Constitution of India and Criminal Law (CrPC), Domestic Violance (Prevention) Act, The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 and The Right of Information Act, 2005.
14. Public Services : All India Services, Constitutional position, role and functions. Central Services: nature and functions. Union Public Service Commission. State Services and the Maharashtra State Public Service Commission. Training in the changing context of governance- YASHDA, Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy.
15. Control over Public Expenditure: Parliamentary Control, Estimates Committee, Public Accounts Committee, Committee on Public Undertakings, Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India, Role of the Finance Ministry in monetary and Fiscal policy, Composition and function of Accountant General, Maharashra.