Coastal Regulation Zone

 Act of 1991 To regulate development activity on India’s coastline The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ 1-4) as per permitted … Read moreCoastal Regulation Zone

Wetland Conservation Programme, Ramsar Convention and The Montreux Record.

Wetland Conservation Programme Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water. Essential as: control floods, water treatment, recharging of water sources, reduce sediments, check soil erosion, bulwark against encroachment by the sea, winter resort for birds and … Read moreWetland Conservation Programme, Ramsar Convention and The Montreux Record.

Sustainable Development

Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’ “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation” Three pillars of sustainable development (Bruntland) Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development> These three pillars … Read moreSustainable Development

Important Environmental Treaties

Treaty Signed/Into force Major Points Aarhus Convention on Access to information for public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters 1998 Aarhus is a Danish city Adopted at the fourth ministerial conference in the ‘Environment for Europe’ process Links environmental rights and human rights   India – No Vienna Convention for … Read moreImportant Environmental Treaties

Convention on Biodiversity, Nagoya Protocol and Achii Targets

Convention on Biodiversity Opened for signature at the Earth Summit in 1992 and entered into force on December 29, 1993 There are 193 parties. Its secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada. US has signed but not ratified the treaty. It is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals: conservation of biodiversity sustainable use of … Read moreConvention on Biodiversity, Nagoya Protocol and Achii Targets

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a set of steps designed to use market/financial incentives in order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and forest degradation. Its original objective is to reduce green house gases but it can deliver “co-benefits” such as biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. REDD+ is … Read moreReducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

CoP15 (Copenhagen Summit)

Main aim was to establish a global climate agreement for the period from 2012 when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires The conference did not achieve any binding agreement for long term action A ‘political accord’ was negotiated by approximately 25 parties Collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources … Read moreCoP15 (Copenhagen Summit)

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol has put in place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases. Although the Protocol places maximum responsibility of reducing emissions on the developed countries by committing them to specific emission targets, the three mechanisms are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of the globe … Read moreKyoto Protocol

Inter-governmental action

IPCC UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 1992 Agenda 21 An action plan of UN relating to sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit, 1992 UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol IPCC 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to … Read moreInter-governmental action

Climate Change Mitigation

Alternative Energy sources Renewable energy Nuclear Power Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels Energy efficiency and conservation Transport and urban planning Building design Reforestation and avoid deforestation Eliminating waste methane Geoengineering Greenhouse gas remediation Biomass Carbon air capture Carbon capture and storage Societal control Population Sustainable life-style