Effects of Migration:
- A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants.
- Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
- In 2002, India received US $11 billion as remittances from international migrants.
- Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
- Besides this, unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding.
- Development of slums in industriallydeveloped states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country.
- Migrants act as agents of social change.
- The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
- Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.
- It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations and widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.
- But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonymity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals.
- Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.
- Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas.
- This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation o slums shanty colonies.
- Apart from this, due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.