Role of Press and Education in social awakening in pre- independent India

Development of Press, Railway, Press and Telegraph, Industries in British India

 

Development of Press:-

The first press in India was established by the Portuguese in 1550, first book was published by Portuguese missionaries (1557). The next was established by British in 1684.

James Augustus Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian press” as he started the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the ‘Bengal Gazette’ or the ‘Calcutta General Advertise’ in January 1780.

“The Bengal Gazette” newspaper is also sometimes known as Hickey’s Gazette. This paper attacked both Warren Hastings and Chief Justice E Impey. It criticized government policies and the Governor-General hence the paper was closed in just two years in 1782. But soon other news papers were started.

The first Indian to publish a newspaper was Gangadhar Bhattacharya who brought out the Bengal Gazette in English. In 1818 Digdarshan was started as the first Bengali weekly by Marshman from Srirampore. On December 4th 1821 Raja Ram Mohan Roy started Samvad Kaumudi and Persian weekly Mirat-ul-Akhbar in 1822

Indian Press under the British Rule

During the reign of the British Empire, there were several Acts passed as stringent curbs over the Indian Press.

Prior to the rumblings of the 1857 mutiny, the Press was fiercely involved in rallying the masses, and inevitably, the British government was increasingly becoming apprehensive about the Press’ freedom.

Through the newspapers, a nationalistic rebellion was slowly being pieced together through words and symbols.

The circulation of papers during the early period never exceeded a hundred or two hundreds. These journals usually aimed to cater to the intellectual entertainment of the Europeans and the Anglo Indians. There was hardly any danger of public opinion being subverted in India.

What really worried these Company’s officers was the apprehension that these newspapers might reach London and expose their misdoings to the Home authorities. In the absence of press laws, the newspapers were at the mercy of the Company’s officials. The Government sometimes enforced pre-censorship, sometimes deported the offending editor for anti-government policies

The Censorship of the Press Act, 1799

Lord Wellesley imposed severe censorship on all newspapers. The Censorship of the Press Act, 1799, imposed almost wartime restrictions on the press. These regulations required:

  1. The newspaper was to clearly print in every issue the name of the printer, the editor and the proprietor.
  2. The publisher was to submit all material for pre-censorship to the Secretary to the Government.
  3. The breach of these rules was punishable with immediate deportation.

In 1807 the Censorship Act was extended to cover journals, pamphlets and even books. The relaxation of press restrictions came under Lord Hastings.

Licensing regulation Act, 1823

Adams’s brief administration of seven months was marked by great energy, but it is remembered only by his illiberal proceedings against the press, and his vindictive persecution of Mr. Buckingham, who had come out to Calcutta in 1818, and established the “Calcutta Journal.” It was the ablest newspaper which had ever appeared in India, and gave a higher tone and a deeper interest to journalism.

The editor, availing himself of the liberty granted to the press by Lord Hastings, commented on public measures with great boldness, and sometimes with a degree of severity which was considered dangerous.

But the great offence of the Journal consisted in the freedom of its remarks on some of the leading members of Government. They had been nursed in the lap of despotism, and their feelings of official complacency were rudely disturbed by the sarcasms inflicted on them.

A Regulation was accordingly passed in April, 1823, which completely extinguished the “freedom of unlicensed printing,” but the Calcutta Journal continued to write with the same spirit as before.

A petition to disallow the press Regulation was presented to the Privy Council, and rejected without any hesitation.

 

Vernacular Press Act, 1878

The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was enacted to curtail the freedom of the Indian-languages’ press.

Lord Lytton was being bitterly criticized for the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80). So, he promulgated the act with an aim to prevent the vernacular press from expressing criticism of British policies under him. The act excluded English-language publications. It elicited strong and sustained protests from a wide spectrum of the Indian populace.

It was nicknamed the ‘Gagging Act’. For the first time, any Act empowered the Government to issue search warrants, and enter newspaper premises even without court ordersMore stringent anti-press laws were enacted in the passage of time, particularly when the freedom movement gained momentum. Reporting was closely monitored and comments against govt. were not tolerated.

The law was repealed in 1881 by Lytton’s successor, Lord Ripon. However, the resentment it produced among Indians became one of the catalysts giving rise to India’s growing independence movement.

Indian Newspaper Act, 1908

The adverse comments of the newspapers against the government led it to follow a repressive policy and enacted the Newspapers (Incite to Offences) Act, 1908.

The Newspaper Act, of 1908 laid down several principles, terms and condition. Magistrates were empowered to confiscate printing press, property connected to of newspapers, which published objectionable materials serving as incitement to murder or acts of violence.

The local government was authorized to terminate any declaration made by the printer and publisher of the newspaper, which had been found offender under the Press and Registration of Books Act of 1867.

The newspapers editors and the printers were given the option to appeal to the High Court within fifteen days of the order of the penalty of the Press.

Indian Press Act, 1910

The Indian Press Act 1910 was a legislation propagated that imposed stringent censorship and restriction of on all types of publications. The measure was put into effect in order to curtail and restrict the emerging Indian freedom struggle, particularly with the advent of World War I.

Press Committee, 1921

In 1921, on the recommendations of a Press Committee chaired by Tej Bahadur Sapru, the Press Acts of 1908 and 1910 were repealed.

Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, 1931

This Act gave sweeping powers to provincial governments to suppress propaganda for Civil Disobedience Movement.

It was further amplified in 1932 to include all activities calculated to undermine government authority.

Press Enquiry Committee, 1947

The Committee was set up to examine press laws in the light of fundamental rights formulated by the Constituent Assembly.

It recommended repeal of Indian Emergency Powers Act, 1931, amendments in Press and Registration of Books Act, modifications in Sections 124-A and 156-A of IPC, among others.

 

Spread of education by missionary and voluntary bodies in modern India

Role of Christian Missionary Education in India during British Colonial period

  • Education in India was a privilege of elite upper classes. It was limited to gurukuls where upper caste young boys would go to study under the tutorship of a guru. Even women from the upper caste families were not provided opportunity to learn. Common people were aliens to this elite education system.
  • When missionaries arrived they began to start schools for common people, generally in the vernacular language. Moni Bagchee writes critically about “Christian Missionaries in Bengal”.
  • Though, written with the negative attitude, the author acknowledges the contribution of missionaries in Bengal to the cause of mass education. Missionaries educated children in local language, raised the standard of education, trained teachers and improved methods of teaching.
  • Missionaries were ahead of their times. Women empowerment would be possible only when women are educated. So, they began to open schools for girls. Upper caste men used to ridicule missionaries requesting them to educate their cows instead of girls.
  • Some times missionaries had to pay incentives to families for sending their girls to school. Modern Indian women have entered in almost all fields in the nation should be grateful to missionaries who created opportunities for their empowerment.
  • Education that was window to the world, key to knowledge, wheels for progress was made available widely for all children irrespective of their caste or economic status or sex.
  • Today, India aspires for a superpower status in the globalized world for which missionaries sowed the seed more than two hundred years ago.
  • The tribal people in Northeast India and in Chotanagpur region are prosperous and progressive. S.K. Barpujari, University of Gauhati writes the teaching of Christ changed the evil practices of Nagas like practices of head-hunting and bloody warfare.

Missionaries in Bihar: Educational Activity

  • Ever since the passing of the Charter Act of 1813 the Christian Missionaries had stared participating actively in the field of Indian education. In Bihar, the Christian Missionaries opened a school for the children of Indian converts at Bettiah in the year 1816.
  • The children were taught to read and write and commit to memory selections from the Gospel translated into Hindustani by the Catholic clergy. The school was under the supervision of a Christian lay teacher, and it had twenty students on its rolls. The Missionaries also opened one such school at Digha, Patna, in 1819.
  • Around the year 1832 Rev. W. Start, a clergyman of the Church of England who had settled at Patna, founded a mission and brought to India, a considerable number of men from Germany.
  • Gradually these assistants of Rev. Start moved to Gaya, Arrah, Hajipur, Chhapra and Muzaffarpur in connection with missionary work. There were a number of missions which came from time to time and made remarkable contributions in the field of education in Bihar.
  • These were: The Roman Catholic Mission, Baptist Missionaries, The Gassner Evangelical Lutheran Mission (later Church) in Chotanagpur, Anglican Mission in Chotanagpur, The Santal Mission of Northern Churches, Roman Catholic Mission in Chotanagpur, The Santa] Mission of the United Free Church of Scotland in Bihar, The Methodist Church in Bihar, the Dublin University Mission in Chotanagpur, the Catholic Mission in the Bhagalpur District and adjacent Santal area in Bihar, The Fellowship of Christian Assemblies Mission 11 Bihar, The Seventh Day Adventist Mission in Bihar, The Zenana Bible and Medical Mission in Bihar, British Churches of Christ Mission in Palamau, The Brethren in Christ Mission in Bihar, The Assembly of God (A.G.) Mission in Bihar, The Catholic Mission to the Santali land of the districts of Pumea and Santal Parganas.
  • These Missionaries continued their work throughout the State. But it was from 1846 onwards that their work started more vigorously, when the Patna-Bettiah sector of the Mission in North India was separated from Agra Vicariate and constituted into new Patna Visceral.

CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS TO EDUCATION IN THE NORTHEAST REGION OF INDIA

  • The Northeast accounts for 7.7 % of the total geographical area, and 3.88% of the population of India. It is a home to over 400 scheduled tribes. There are few places in the world where such a variety of peoples live in close proximity to each other as in Northeast India. The tribals constitute 80% of the population of Northeast India.
  • The earliest known Christian presence in Northeast India goes back to 17th century. We have the three Tibet bound Portuguese Jesuit missionaries, Stephen Cacella and John Cabral, and Fontabona from Italy who reached Hajo and Pandu near Guwahati, Asom, on September 26, 1626. They visited parts of Goalpara and Kamrup districts on their way to Tibet.
  • The Chronicles of the Augustinian monks at Bandel, near Hoogly, in West Bengal provide detailed information about the visit of Francis Laynez, the Jesuit bishop of Mylapore, to Rangamati, in the kingdom of Cooch Behar in 1714, a large Christian Community of 7000 people live there. A small Portuguese Catholic community at Bondashil in the Cachar district of Assam, the remnants of another Mughal Army, and a similar community at Mariamnagar in Agartala which was in existence since the eighteenth century goes to show the significant presence of Christians.
  • The earliest nineteenth century missionary interest in the Northeast was shown by the Baptists of Serampore from 1816-1837.
  • In 1811 an Assamese pundit, Atmaram Sarma of Kaliabari in the Nagaon district was employed by the mission to translate the Christian scriptures into Assamese and an Assamese New Testament was published in 1819.
  • In 1813 Krishna Chandra Pal, the first convert of the Serampore mission spent eight months at Pandua, under the Syiemship of Cherapunji . As far as Garos are concerned the first contact with education came in 1824, when David Scott sends three Garo boys to Serampore to study.
  • The whole of Northeast India had other associations with Christianity prior to the Treaty of Yandabu and the British annexation of Asom in 1826. This would mean that Northeast India had Christian presence even before the Ahom Raja, Rudra Singh. Encouraged by David Scott, and Major Jenkins, the Serampore mission opened a school at Guwahati in 1829; just three years after Asom had come under the control of the British. Soon Alexander Lish, opened schools at Cherrapunji, Mawsmai and Mawmluh and made a beginning in the development of Khasi literature.
  • In 1836, the two American Baptist missionary couples came to Sadiya, but soon would move to the hills.
  • Since its establishment in 1834, the whole of Northeast India was under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of Calcutta. Fathers Huc and Gabet, French Lazarists visited Mangaldai on their way to Tibet in 1846. From 1850 the Foreign Missionaries of Paris ministered to the scattered Catholic Communities in the Asom Valley.
  • Asom became part of the prefecture of Bengal in 1870 under the care of the Foreign Missionaries of Milan (PIME).
  • In 1890 the whole Asom was entrusted to the care of the then newly founded German Society of Catholic Education known as the Society of the Divine Saviour, or German Salvatorians.
  • The JesuitMissionaries looked after the mission from 1915 to 1922. From 1922 the Salesians of Don Bosco (S.D.B.) or the Don Bosco Fathers and brothers and later on the diocesan Clergy and members of other religious congregations and committed laity made their contribution to development of education.

Education of Women

  • A century ago education of women was practically unknown, especially in the plains of Asom. The Adivasi tribal women were illiterate. Among the Assamese women too education was totally neglected.
  • The first attempt towards the education of women in Northeast India were made at the turn of the century with the beginning of St. Mary’s School, and college, by the Sisters of the Queen of the Missions (RNDM) for the education of girls and women has rendered yeomen service in this field.
  • The Salesian Sisters (FMA) began their work in Asom with the education and empowerment of poor Adivasi tribal girls.
  • Their example of commitment to this cause was followed by the Missionary Sisters of Mary Help of Christians (MSMHC) whom they formed at the initial stages of the congregation.
  • The visitation sisters of Don Bosco (VSDB) founded by late Archbishop Hubert D’Rosario, SDB, in 1983 are doing great amount of work among the village and rural women.
  • The qualitative and quantitative growth of the congregations has brought greater vitality to the tribal churches of Northeast India. This same commitment and dedication through their educational institutions is visible every where they work.
  • The government of Asom sought the help of missionaries in this effort. As Becker says, “The real problem was to arouse interest among the local women for the education of girls”.
  • The beginning of education of women was a major breakthrough in the transformation of society in the region.
  • Today it is taken for granted that girls too should be educated. Though it is heartening to note that women in general enjoy better status in the Northeast compared to the rest of the country, much more can be done to promote their dignity and self worth especially through education.

Professional and Technical Education

  • Training schools and colleges for the preparation of teachers were also set up by the Christian Churches. Technical schools were first introduced by the Church, particularly by the Catholic Church.
  • This has been a specific contribution of the Salesian religious brothers through Don Bosco Technical Schools and now the Montfort religious brothers and others.
  • Thousands of tribal youth have been introduced and trained in shoe making, book binding, tailoring, furniture making, general mechanics, motor mechanics, welding, composing and printing, computer, typing, shorthand, photography, and embroidery making.
  • This movement has radically changed the tribal way of life and served as a catalyst for others to enter into similar pursuits.

Theological Education

  • Theological and pastoral education introduced and developed by the various churches in Northeast India has also quietly brought about major changes in the region.
  • There are many philosophical colleges and theological colleges that impart ecclesiastical education to future church leaders in the Northeast India. They are the primary agent of social change in many areas of life.

Medical Education

  • Promotion of Medical students through scholarship has brought about a great change in tribal society. As a result today there are hundreds of doctors, nurses, laboratory assistants, technicians and auxiliary nurses from among the tribal population.
  • Homes for the orphans and the aged established by the Churches have totally changed the situation of the poor and marginalized elements of society. Care of the differently abled has made many tribal families aware that there are new areas of life that need attention. Often corrective treatment, surgery, physiotherapy can do much to make life normal or at least tolerable to the differently abled especially children and youth.
  • The schools for the differently abled in Tura, Shillong, Umiam Khwan and Agartala bear witness to this side of Christian education that has transformed the tribal society.
  • What I want to stress here is the fact that the real achievement of Christian Education in these hills in the early years is not necessarily the setting up of medical institutions but the impact of mere education on the health consciousness of the people, thus making them healthier individuals

Choice of Roman Script for Tribal Languages

 

  • The use of tribal language in education necessitates its development as an educational tool. The first step in its development is developing a writing system for it. One aspect of developing a writing system is the choice of a script.
  • In the Indian context the choice of script may be 1) the script of the official language of the State in which the tribal language is spoken; 2) Devanagiri; 3) Roman and 4) invented script.
  • Each has advantage and disadvantages from cultural, social, political, economic and technological points of view. The generally favoured view in India is the script of the state language with necessary modification to suit the needs of the tribal culture.
  • The second aspect of the writing system is devising an alphabet – a set of symbols- to represent the meaning of differentiating sounds of the tribal language.
  • Here also cultural and political considerations intervene with purely linguistic considerations. The aspect of the writing system is spelling of words identification of word boundaries and punctuation marks. The last aspect is technological applications like printing, computer key board.
  • The Choice of the Roman script to reduce the languages of the tribals to writing with the exception of Assamese was an important decision taken after much discussion. This step had far reaching benefits.
  • First the tribals learned the art of reading and writing. Naturally, the missionary had the intention that their people should be able to read the sacred scripture. Language played a very important meeting point between the missionary and the people.
  • The Assamese people irrespective of their religious affiliation and historians of all hues credit the American Baptist mission for having helped to preserve the autonomy of the Assamese language. So too, many other tribes.
  • Language and literature enabled the tribals towards breaking out of isolationism. It opened up new vistas of cross cultural communication and enabled the people to cope up with the new socio-economic and political situation in which they found themselves.

Role of voluntary bodies in modern India

“The diversity of NGOs strains any simple definition. They include many groups and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and that have primarily humanitarian or cooperative rather than commercial objectives. They are private agencies in industrial countries that support international development; indigenous groups organized regionally or nationally; and member-groups in villages. NGOs include charitable and religious associations that mobilize private funds for development, distribute food and family planning services and promote community organization. They also include independent cooperatives, community associations, water-user societies, women’s groups and pastoral associations. Citizen Groups that raise awareness and influence policy are also NGOs” ~ World Bank

Some Famous organization and Their role in Complete Development of tribal or other social groups including Education

Rajasthan Vanvasi Kalyan Parishad (RVKP)

  • Tribal development is central objectives in their constitution as well as function. It is established as a regional center of Akhil Bhartiya Vanvasi Kalyan Parisad (1952) but it has also separate and local identity like locally registered rather a branch office, local leadership, local resources and local tribal concerns.
  • It is inspired by Hindu ideology and indigenous culture. Its emergence is, as leader’s claims, to protect local tribal culture from external forces through developmental programmes- siksha, swasthya, swablamban aur sanskar (education, health, independence and culture).
  • The work of RVKP spread in 27 CD blocks of eight tribal districts namely Udaipur, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Banswara, Chittoregarh, Sirohi, Pali, Baran. Major programmes of this organisation are health centers, educational institutions, sports center, hostels, Satsang Kendra and Sanskar Kendra.
  • Tuberculosis control programme is most important and popular initiative taken by this organisation started in 1992 from Jhadol and Kotra Block of Udaipur district. Till 1999 it benefited 1053 and 555 patients respectively in Jhadol and Kotra tehsil alone. Health care programmes also include permanent health center and mobile van for interior tribal villages.

Vidya Bhawan Society

  • Vidya Bhawan Society is the initial voluntary effort which continues even today. This was established in 1931 with dedicated efforts of Dr Mohan Singh Mehta and a group of like minded people.
  • The thrust of this organisation was to educate the rural masses of that region where the percentage literacy rate was only 4.9.
  • It started with a middle school and today twelve different institutes are running under this society and all are concerned to rural development with professional expertise.
  • These institutes not only comprises formal education but also entrepreneurial training, professional courses suited to the local needs.
  • For instance, Anganwadi Workers Prasikshan Kendra, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Cellulose Waste Recycling Education, teachers training etc all focussed to local requirement. The people’s commitment reflects through Dr. Mehta writes about the social condition ofVBS.

Rajasthan Vidyapith Kul (RVK)

  • This is one of oldest voluntary institution which has now partly changed to deemed university with numerous institutions. It started in 1937 by a local social reformer Pandit Janardanray Nagar and like minded people of Mewar144
  • Rajasthan Vidyapith is the initial steps in tribal education by establishing the schools in tribal pockets before independence such as Jhadol, Davok, Pratapnagar.
  • Other institutions of Rajasthan Vidyapith have also given priority and privileges to tribal students in that region.
  • Besides these, Lok Sishan Sansthan (a unit of RVK) started in 1939 and continue even today for rural development of South Rajasthan.
  • Community development is the core objective of this unit through adult education and extension programmes among tribes. The constitution of this organisation clearly mentions the tribal interest as core issue and their development through educational programmes.
  • Now, RVK is a registered society (1992) and also executes various governmental projects, like child schools in two villages along with 29 local NGOs.

Rajasthan Bal Kalyan Samiti (RBKS)

  • This is also a voluntary organisation registered in 1983 and managmg several educational institutions of Udaipur district. This has established by a local resident of Jhadol tehsil who is by profession a primary school teacher.
  • Unlike the other NGOs it is completely village based and totally devoted for tribal development. RBKS is located in Jhadol tehsil, a scheduled tribe area, and later on spread to other areas such as Gogunda, Kotra and Girwa.
  • It provides the formal education through school and college education with special focus to tribal masses. Jhadol tehsil has very few high schools and not a single college for further education except one college recently established by RBKS.
  • It also provides hostel facilities for exclusively tribal boys and girls separately with minimal charges because they receive the grant from Ministry of Tribal Affairs (Govt. of India) and other sources. Tribal girl education is the major thrust ofthis organisation.

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