Maharastra Human Development Index:-
Human development an integral part of economic development is fastly catching of various stakeholders around the world. It is also about people’s active engagement in shaping development, equity and sustainability, intrinsic aspects of freedom of people have to lead lives they have reason to value. Human development index is a tool devised by United Nations for ranking countries for measuring levels of social and economic development measuring life expectancy, education , literacy and standard of living.
- The overall average of Maharashtra in human development index is 0.752.
- The Human Development programme covers 125 talukas in 23 districts of the state.
- According to the Maharashtra Human Development Report (MHDR) 2012, the Human Development Index (HDI) of the state is 0.752. Mumbai comprising Mumbai city and suburban districts taken together has the highest HDI of 0.841 whereas the tribal dominated Nandurbar in north Maharashtra has the lowest HDI of 0.604.
- A decade after the state adopted the yardstick of HDI to quantify and measure development of individual districts, Mumbai, Pune and Thane districts have shown continuous improvement in their respective HDI. Prior to 2001, the yardstick was used to measure the development index of the state as a whole. A decade after change of the yardstick, districts like Osmanabad and Latur which were earlier ranked in Medium HDI category have slipped into the Low HDI category.
- Comparison of HDI data of 2011 over 2001, shows that Nandurbar, Gadchiroli, Jalna and Dhule districts continue to be the weakest and remain in the ‘Low’ HDI category. Bhandara continue to remain in the relative category of ‘Medium’ HDI, while Nashik has joined the ‘Very High’ HDI category of Thane, Pune and Mumbai.
- Maharashtra overall has fared better with districts like Nashik joining the top category of Mumbai, Thane and Pune, on the Human Development Index (HDI) over past decade.
- The literacy rate is 82.3 per cent and the literacy rate for Scheduled Castes is 79.7 per cent and that for Scheduled Tribes 65.7 per cent.
- The per capita income has grown by 11.4 per cent to Rs 1,46,399 in 2015-16 against Rs 1,32,341 in 2014-15. Maharashtra is second only to Karnataka, whose per capita income stands at Rs 1,48,485.
- Currently, the state’s per capita income is Rs 1.47 lakh and the 10 shortlisted districts with low per capital income shortlisted are Nandurbar (Rs 66,110), Washim (Rs 66,462), Hingoli (Rs 66,998), Buldhana (Rs 68,298), Gadchiroli (Rs 70,911), Beed (Rs 78,685), Osmanabad (Rs 79,041), Yavatmal (Rs 82,180), Parbhani (Rs 82,684) and Jalna (Rs 82,844).
- The state’s per capita income at Rs 1.47 lakh can be attributed to three districts with higher income, Mumbai (Rs 2.58 lakh), Thane ( Rs 2.17 lakh) and Pune (Rs 2.04 lakh),
- Although Maharashtra’s current per capita income is higher than the national average at Rs 94,178, a district-wise income index in the state shows a regional imbalance in development and income growth. Of the 36 districts in the state, the per capita income of 16 is less than Rs 1 lakh.
- The Konkan division that includes Mumbai leads with a per capita income of Rs 2.24lakh, followed by Nashik division at1.12 lakh, Pune at 1.63 lakh), Aurangabad division at 90,000), Amravati at Rs 84,878) and Nagpur division at Rs 1.32 lakh.
- Of the total 11.40 crore people in Maharashtra, the population below poverty line is pegged at 17.35 per cent.
- The 10 districts with low income have different problems. While farm crisis is common, the problem of poor infrastructure in villages is being addressed with higher investments in water conservation projects. Rural village roads are being constructed to improve connectivity and new avenues of work are being created through cottage industries. These villages also comprise a sizeable tribal population in its interiors.
- On the human development index, the 10 districts are categorised as low and medium leads with Nandurbar at 0.604, Gadchiroli at 0.608, Washim at 0.646, Hingoli at 0.648, Osmanabad at 0.649 and Jalna at 0.663. Beed with 0.678, Parbhani at 0.683, Buldhana at 0.684 and Yavatmal at 0.700 are the others.
Government Policy towards Human Development:-
- The growth should reflect across the region and not confined to the four most prosperous districts of Mumbai, Thane, Pune and Nashik.
- In an attempt to tackle regional disparity in per capita income and low human index and increase the state’s per capita income to Rs 6 lakh by 2030, the government has decided on a development model focusing on the 10 most backward regions in Marathwada, Vidarbha and North Maharashtra.
- To sustain a 12 per cent Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) with more than 10 per cent in the agricultural sector, the government believes its capital investment will have to increase from current Rs 26,000 in the sector to Rs 50,000 in the next five years.
- Need to optimise spending on social sectors in the 10 backward districts, a roadmap has linked low income to low human development index.
- Under the state human development plan, the 125 talukas spread across the 10 districts will have special programmes on health, education and employment sectors.
- Of the total funds allocated to talukas across the state till December 2017, Rs 302 crore has been kept aside for the 125 talukas.
- The government proposes to increase the literacy rate especially of the 10th passed out in the coming years.
- The state of Maharashtra wants its citizens to be happy, and plans to achieve this by setting up a “happiness department” in the government. Recently the state government has set up a seven-member committee to plan the formation of a happiness department under the state department of relief and rehabilitation.