- 1906 by Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka, and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk
- It made no critique of colonialism, supported the partition of Bengal and demanded special safeguards for the Muslims in government services.
- ML’s political activities were directed not against the foreign rulers but against the Hindus and the INC.
- Their activities were not supported by all Muslims
- Arhar movement was founded at this time under the leadership of Maulana Mohamed Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasan Imam, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, and Mazhar-ul-Haq. They advocated participation in the militant nationalist movement.
- The war between Ottoman Empire and Italy created a wave of sympathy for Turkey
- During the war between Ottoman empire and Italy, India sent a medical mission headed by MA Ansari to help Turkey.
- As the British were not sympathetic to Turkey, the pro-Caliph sentiments in India became anti-British
- However, the militant nationalists among muslims did not accept an entirely secular approach to politics
- The most important issue they took up was not political independence but protection of the Turkish empire.
- This approach did not immediately clash with Indian nationalism. However, in the long run it proved harmful as it encouraged the habit of looking at political questions from a religious view point.
- Some Hindus accepted the colonial view of Indian history and talked about the tyrannical Muslim rule in the medieval period
- Over language they said that Hindi was the language of Hindus and Urdu that of Muslims.
- Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. Its leaders attached the INC for trying to unite Indians into a single nation.
- The first session of the All India Hindu Mahasabha was held in April 1915 under the presidentship of the Maharaja of Kasim Bazar.
- It however remained a weak organization because the colonial government gave it few concessions and little support.